Skip to main content
- The call of the void: The phenomenon of a healthy individual, when at a high location or ledge, having the spontaneous urge to jump off.
- The Imp of the Perverse: The urge to do wrong simply because one can.
Cognitive biases (list of cognitive biases)
(after noticing something for the first time, one begins to notice it more often,
leading one to believe that it occurs often or with increasing frequency compared to before noticing it for the first time)
Game "Moral Machine"
(a game of moral dilemmas whose results are/were used by MIT to guide them in their decision making for self-driving automobiles)
- Availability cascade
Inverse correlation between the quantity of people that can help and the the urge for any one individual to help.
Confounding factor: A variable/factor
that influences both the independent variable (e.g. a treatment, a drug) and dependent variable (the outcome),
causing a spurious association. E.g. Testing to see if birth order (independent variable)
causes down syndrome in children (dependent variable). A confounding factor is maternal age upon child's birth.
& similar but conversely Self-defeating prophecy
- Self-refuting idea
Münchhausen / Agrippan trilemma:
Any proposition, to be accepted as true, requires proof. Said proof requires its own proof. This repeats until any 1 of 3 unsatisfying arguments is used:
- The circular argument, in which the proof of some proposition presupposes the truth of that very proposition
- The dogmatic argument, which rests on accepted precepts which are merely asserted rather than defended
- The regressive argument, in which each proof requires a further proof, ad infinitum
The Prisoner's dilemma:
(similar to the tragedy of the commons)
Two criminals are being interrogated separately.
If neither snitches, they both get the best outcome.
If each snitches, they both get the worst outcome.
If only one snitches, then the snitcher's outcome is modest, but the non-snitcher's outcome is the worst.
Each has the incentive to snitch on the other for their own personal gain,
but the best outcome (both individually & as a group) is only possible with cooperation.
(video regarding prisoner's dilemma and strategies for it)
- Nash equilibrium
- Positive-sum game (e.g. Prisoner's Dilemma) vs Zero-sum game
Types of disingenuous speaking commonly used by politicians:
& terms similar to deja vu
- The Mandela effect
- Woozle effect
The least competent individuals tend to overestimate their competency,
while conversely the most competent individuals tend to underestimate their competency.